Percutaneous polymeric stents in porcine coronary arteries. Initial experience with polyethylene terephthalate stents.
BACKGROUND To test the feasibility of percutaneous deployment of intracoronary polymeric stents, a prototype polyethylene terephthalate (PET) stent and a catheter-based delivery system were developed.
METHODS AND RESULTS Polymeric stents were deployed in the coronary arteries of 11 Yucatan swine: six stents were placed in the left anterior descending coronary artery, four stents were placed in the circumflex artery, and one stent was placed in the right coronary artery. Stent deployment was achieved by withdrawal of an outer delivery sheath, thus allowing the PET stent to self-expand to a preformed configuration. Two animals died during surgery, one during stent placement and the other several hours after implantation due to intracoronary thrombus formation. Two animals were electively sacrificed within 24 hours of stent implant to examine the adequacy of stent deployment within the coronary vessel. The remaining seven animals survived until the termination of the study 4-6 weeks later. Light microscopic examination of the stented vessels showed an extensive neointimal proliferative response with vessel occlusion in all animals who survived initial stent placement. There were two distinct types of histological responses to the PET stent--a chronic foreign body inflammatory response around the stent tines and a neointimal proliferative response in the center of the occluded vessel lumen. The histological response seen in the central area of the vessel was morphologically similar to that seen in patients with restenosis after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, whereas the morphological response seen at the periphery of the stent tine was similar to that exhibited by a chronic foreign body reaction and was not typical of that seen in a restenosis lesion. A ventricular aneurysm also developed in the area of myocardium that was previously supplied by the occluded vessel.
CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that percutaneous deployment of polymeric stents in the coronary arteries is technically feasible. The use of PET polymer was associated with an intense proliferative neointimal response that resulted in complete vessel occlusion. Histological examination of the stented segments of the vessel revealed no evidence that dissection of the vessel wall had occurred at the time of initial stent deployment. Although the PET polymer was of similar quality to that used in the manufacture of balloon angioplasty catheters, a toxic chemical or contaminant effect cannot be completely excluded as the stimulus to intimal proliferation. This finding may have relevance to the selection of materials for use as intravascular devices.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association