Diagnosis and management of right ventricle-dependent coronary circulation in pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum.
BACKGROUND Coronary artery anomalies including 1) right ventricle (RV)-to-coronary artery fistulas, 2) coronary artery stenoses, and 3) coronary occlusions occur in patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA-IVS). In some, a large part of the coronary blood supply may depend on the RV. This RV-dependent coronary circulation may determine survival after right ventricular decompression (RVD): RVD may cause RV "steal" in the presence of fistulas alone and ischemia, coronary isolation, or myocardial infarction in the presence of coronary stenoses.
METHODS AND RESULTS Eighty-two patients with PA-IVS who presented between January 1979 and January 1990 were reviewed; 26 (32%) had RV-to-coronary artery fistulas. Of these 26, 23 had adequate preoperative coronary angiograms for analysis. RVD was achieved in 16. Seven of 16 had fistulas only; each survived RVD. Six of 16 had stenosis of a single coronary artery [left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), four; right coronary artery (RCA), two]; four of six survived RVD. Three of 16 had stenoses and/or occlusion of both the RCA and LAD; all three died shortly after RVD of acute left ventricular dysfunction.
CONCLUSIONS 1) Potential RV steal alone does not preclude successful RVD. 2) Fistulas with stenoses to a single coronary artery may not preclude successful RVD. 3) RVD appears to be contraindicated in the presence of stenoses and/or occlusion involving both the right and left coronary systems. Nonsurvival after RVD seems to depend on the amount of the left ventricular myocardium at risk, i.e., that which is distal to coronary artery stenoses, especially when involvement of both coronary arteries limits effective collateralization. Precise definition of coronary arterial anatomy is mandatory in neonates with PA-IVS.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association