Radiofrequency catheter ablation of left lateral accessory pathways via the coronary sinus.
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to describe a new technique for catheter ablation of left lateral accessory pathways (APs) by radiofrequency energy applied at the epicardium through the coronary sinus wall using a unipolar configuration.
METHODS AND RESULTS In an overall group of 212 patients with left lateral APs, multiple endocardial ablation attempts of the AP were unsuccessful in eight patients. The mean +/- SD cumulative duration of previous attempts was 12 +/- 9 hours, using DC shocks and/or radiofrequency energy applied both at the atrial and/or ventricular AP insertions. Epicardial AP insertion was determined by bipolar and unipolar unfiltered distal electrograms by scanning the coronary sinus with a steerable 6F or 7F catheter with a 4-mm distal electrode. The local atrial to ventricular electrogram amplitude ratio was 0.3-1.6. At the ablation site, the catheter tip was slightly deflected toward the annulus to increase both the ventricular component of electrograms and contact with the epicardium. In four patients, epicardial electrogram timings were earlier than endocardial ones. The AP was ablated in seven of the eight patients with 20-30 W applied for 10-60 seconds. No complications occurred except a marked nonspecific pain during radiofrequency energy application; however, the catheter remained adherent to the coronary sinus wall, and its withdrawal was performed during a new radiofrequency application to decrease the risk of coronary sinus rupture. After ablation, echocardiograms, coronary artery angiograms, and levophase coronary sinus angiograms showed no abnormality in all patients except two who had a probable mural thrombus in the coronary sinus. AP conduction remained abolished for 1-10 months of follow-up in seven patients.
CONCLUSIONS Radiofrequency catheter ablation of left lateral APs can be achieved effectively and relatively safely via the mid or distal coronary sinus when endocardial approaches are unsuccessful.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association