New findings concerning ventricular septation in the human heart. Implications for maldevelopment.
BACKGROUND The mechanics involved in development of the inlet component of the morphologically right ventricle are, as yet, undecided. Some argue that this component is derived from the descending limb of the ventricular loop, and that the inlet and apical trabecular components of the muscular ventricular septum have separate developmental origins. Others state that the entirety of the right ventricle grows from the ascending limb of the loop, and that the muscular septum, apart from its outer component, has a unitary origin. We now have material from human embryos at our disposal, which, we believe, solves this conundrum.
METHODS AND RESULTS We used a monoclonal antibody against an antigen to neural tissue from the chick to demarcate a ring of cells separating the descending (inlet) and ascending (outlet) limbs of the developing ventricular loop of the human heart. Preparation of serial sections of graded human embryos enabled us to trace the fate of this ring, and hence the formation of the inlet of the right ventricle, to the completion of cardiac septation. Eight embryos were studied, encompassing stages 14-23 of the Carnegie classification. The ring of cells initially separating the ascending and descending limbs of the ventricular loop were, at the conclusion of ventricular septation, located within the atrioventricular junction, sequestrated for the most part in the terminal segment of atrial myocardium.
CONCLUSIONS Our study conclusively shows that the inlet component of the morphologically right ventricle is derived from the ascending limb of the embryonic ventricular loop, and that the inlet and apical trabecular components of the muscular septum are derived from the same primary ventricular septum.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association