Myocardial protective effects of adenosine. Infarct size reduction with pretreatment and continued receptor stimulation during ischemia.
BACKGROUND We hypothesized that 1) endogenous adenosine released during ischemia conferred an inherent cardioprotection, and 2) a pretreatment dose of adenosine before ischemia would provide additional protection independent of hemodynamic effects.
METHODS AND RESULTS Thirty-six anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits underwent 30 minutes of regional ischemia produced by coronary occlusion followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. The adenosine group (ADO, n = 9) received a 5-minute pretreatment infusion of 140 micrograms/kg/min of adenosine before ischemia. A control group (SAL, n = 9) received saline before ischemia. To separate the effects of adenosine used as a pretreatment versus the effects during ischemia, a third group (ADO+SPT, n = 9) received adenosine as pretreatment followed by 10 mg/kg 8-p-sulfophenyl theophylline (8-SPT), an A1/A2-receptor antagonist given before ischemia, thus allowing pretreatment with adenosine but antagonizing its effects during ischemia. To preclude any protection from endogenous adenosine released during ischemia, the fourth group (SAL+SPT, n = 9) received saline as pretreatment and 8-SPT before ischemia. Area of necrosis within the area at risk (infarct size) was determined with tetrazolium and Evans blue stains, and transmural blood flow was measured using radioactive microspheres. Collateral blood flow in the area at risk was similar in all groups, as was the size of the area at risk. Infarct size was reduced by adenosine pretreatment (ADO, 8.4 +/- 7.2%) in contrast to saline vehicle (SAL, 27.8 +/- 6.3%; p less than 0.05 versus ADO). alpha 1/alpha 2-Receptor blockade after adenosine pretreatment abolished the ischemic protection provided by pretreatment adenosine (ADO+SPT, 42.7 +/- 8.3%; p less than 0.05 versus ADO). Finally, receptor blockade of endogenously released adenosine without adenosine pretreatment increased infarct size by 24% over the nonpretreated saline group (SAL+SPT, 51.5 +/- 9.0%; p less than 0.05 versus SAL).
CONCLUSIONS We conclude that 1) endogenous adenosine building up during ischemia is cardioprotective, and 2) pretreatment with adenosine confers cardioprotection independent of hemodynamic effects. Whether pretreatment effects of adenosine subsequently modulate the effects of endogenous adenosine (through alterations in receptor population or sensitivity) or endogenous and exogenous adenosine represent additive compartments is unclear.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association