Morphological predictors of acute complications after percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty. Results of a comprehensive angiographic analysis: importance of the eccentricity index.
BACKGROUND Percutaneous excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) is a new technique for recanalization of arteries obstructed by coronary atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to assess the complication rate and determine the influence of clinical and angiographic characteristics on complications after ELCA.
METHODS AND RESULTS A detailed, quantitative, angiographic core laboratory analysis of patients undergoing ELCA was performed by two experienced angiographers who were not the primary laser angioplasty operators. Two hundred patients underwent 203 separate procedures on 220 lesions at three medical centers. Laser success was achieved in 180 lesions (81.8%) and procedural success in 199 (90.5%). Emergency coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) was required in five patients (2.5%). One patient suffered a Q wave myocardial infarction; there were no deaths. Also, acute closure and perforation occurred in 10 (4.5%) and three (1.4%) vessels, respectively. Coronary dissections after laser treatment were seen in 36 vessels (16.4%). Multivariate analysis found two independent preprocedural factors related to complications: eccentricity index, which is the percent deviation of the lesion lumen from the center of the artery (p = 0.0007), and proximal vessel diameter (p = 0.033). In addition, an abrupt proximal face of the lesion was associated with angiographic complications by univariate analysis (p = 0.051). Multivariate analysis showed the eccentricity index (p = 0.032) to be the only independent predictor for the occurrence of any one or more of the important complications (emergency CABG, perforation, acute closure, or Q wave myocardial infarction), whereas lesion angle greater than 45 degrees was a significant univariate predictor (p = 0.029). Other predictors of complications with balloon percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, such as increased lesion length, rough edges, calcification, ulceration, and branch point, were not predictive of complications with the excimer laser.
CONCLUSIONS The degree of lesion eccentricity is the most powerful predictor of complications after ELCA. This and other morphological predictors may be of benefit in the selection of patients for ELCA as well as directing future development of this new technology.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association