Chronic reduction of myocardial ischemia does not attenuate coronary collateral development in miniswine.
BACKGROUND Myocardial ischemia is considered to be a possible stimulus for development of the coronary collateral circulation. We therefore hypothesized that chronic reduction of myocardial oxygen demand to lessen ischemia would attenuate coronary collateral development over an 8-week period using left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) ameroid-induced constriction in pigs.
METHODS AND RESULTS Collateral development was assessed by myocardial blood flow (radioactive microspheres) and left ventricular regional function (sonomicrometer dimension gauges). beta-Adrenoceptor blockade with propranolol (160 or 320 mg b.i.d.p.o.) was initiated in 15 animals 1 day after surgery. Compared with 16 untreated animals, beta-adrenoceptor antagonism was documented in the treated group by 1) pharmacological stimulation with isoproterenol, 2) physiological stimulation during graded treadmill exercise, and 3) repeated long-term biotelemetry recordings of oxygen demand (heart rate and blood pressure) and regional myocardial function. In addition to pharmacological and physiological verification of beta-blockade, biotelemetry showed that, compared with the untreated animals, propranolol significantly reduced the daily number, individual duration, and severity of events representing myocardial dysfunction. This suggests that in the beta-blocked group, little if any ischemia was present throughout the first 5 weeks when collateral growth occurs. Transmural myocardial blood flow (expressed as a ratio of flow in the LCx region to the nonoccluded region of the left ventricle) and systolic wall thickening in the LCx region were determined at rest and during treadmill exercise (240 beats per minute) 31-38 days (5 weeks) and 60-67 days (8 weeks) after surgery. Propranolol was withdrawn 3 days before flow and function determinations and was resumed immediately after testing. Blood flow ratios at 5 weeks decreased similarly from rest to exercise in the untreated (0.83 +/- 0.04 to 0.60 +/- 0.05, p less than 0.05) and beta-blockade group (0.82 +/- 0.09 to 0.57 +/- 0.10, p less than 0.05). Systolic wall thickening from rest to exercise was attenuated to the same degree in the untreated (59 +/- 6% to 38 +/- 6%, p less than 0.05) and beta-blockade group (50 +/- 8% to 30 +/- 5%, p less than 0.05). Similar flow and function responses were observed in both groups at 8 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS We conclude that growth and development of the coronary collateral circulation measured functionally during exercise at 90% of maximal heart rate is unrelated to the extent and duration of myocardial ischemia in this model.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association