Influence of loading conditions and contractile state on pulmonary venous flow. Validation of Doppler velocimetry.
BACKGROUND Although recent studies suggest that pulmonary venous flow velocities may be used to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function, the influence of loading conditions and contractile state on the magnitude and pattern of pulmonary venous flow are poorly understood.
METHODS AND RESULTS Fourteen anesthetized open-chest mongrel dogs were instrumented with pulmonary venous flow probes, atrial sonomicrometer crystal paris, and high-fidelity micromanometers; transesophageal Doppler echocardiography was used to obtain simultaneous pulmonary venous flow velocities. Measurements were made over a wide range of left atrial pressure obtained by either intravascular volume infusion and inferior vena caval balloon inflation (n = 8), halothane inhalation (n = 6), or phenylephrine infusion (n = 5). There was an excellent correlation for pulmonary venous systolic (J) to diastolic (K) time integral between the Doppler and flow probe signal (r = 0.94; SEE, 0.18). When left atrial pressure was increased by volume infusion, there was a significant linear relation between mean left atrial pressure and the Doppler J/K peak (r = 0.64; SEE, 3.4 mm Hg) and flow velocity-time integral ratio (r = 0.75; SEE, 2.9 mm Hg). By contrast, when left atrial pressure was elevated by halothane-induced cardiac depression, there was no correlation. The independent determinants of the pattern of pulmonary venous flow (stepwise multiple linear regression analysis) under all conditions were atrial systolic shortening, aortic systolic pressure, heart rate, and left ventricular end-systolic dimension (cumulative r = 0.80).
CONCLUSIONS The pattern of pulmonary venous flow can be measured accurately with Doppler velocities and is differentially influenced by loading conditions and myocardial contractile state; in the absence of myocardial contractile dysfunction, the pattern of pulmonary venous flow may provide an estimate of left atrial pressure; and pulmonary venous flow is determined largely by atrial systolic function.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association