Acadesine and myocardial protection. Studies of time of administration and dose-response relations in the rat.
BACKGROUND Although there are many factors that might contribute to tissue injury during ischemia and reperfusion, the loss of adenine nucleotides has long been considered to be of importance. This has led to the study of interventions designed to limit the loss of nucleotides or to enhance the rate of nucleotide resynthesis during reperfusion. Alternatively, the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine might represent a protective response of the ischemic heart because adenosine is considered an anti-injury autocoid. Augmentation of endogenous adenosine levels might be beneficial. For these reasons, the protective properties of acadesine (AICAr: 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside) were assessed in a rat model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.
METHODS AND RESULTS The protective properties of acadesine were studied in the isolated, perfused rat heart subjected to global hypothermic (20 degrees C) ischemia and reperfusion. When acadesine was given as an in vivo pretreatment (100 mg/kg i.v. 15 minutes before study) followed by being administered as an additive (20 mumol/l) to the St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution (single dose) and then as an additive (20 mumol/l) to the initial reperfusion (15 minutes) solution, the recovery of aortic flow after 2.5 hours of ischemia was improved from its control value of 16.5 +/- 3.9 ml/min to 28.9 +/- 4.1 ml/min (n = 8 per group; p less than 0.05). Similar protection was seen with other indexes of cardiac function. Analysis of hearts obtained at the end of 2.5 hours of ischemia and 35 minutes of reperfusion revealed no significant differences in metabolite content between control and drug-treated hearts with the exception of inosine monophosphate, which was increased from its drug-free control value of 0.10 +/- 0.01 mumol/g dry wt to 0.86 +/- 0.06 mumol/g dry wt (p less than 0.05). In further studies (n = 8 per group), with multidose (every 30 minutes) cardioplegia and extended periods (6 hours) of hypothermic ischemia, acadesine consistently led to higher mean recoveries of function and lower levels of creatine kinase leakage. Again, the only significant metabolic effect was an increase in tissue inosine monophosphate content. In studies (n = 12 per group) to determine whether acadesine was acting before, during, or after ischemia, the drug was given 1) only as pretreatment (100 mg/kg i.v.), 2) only during single-dose cardioplegia (20 mumol/l), or 3) only during reperfusion (20 mumol/l). Significant protection was observed in the first two groups (recovery of aortic flow increased from 10.6 +/- 2.6 ml/min in the acadesine-free control to 22.6 +/- 2.8 and 23.6 +/- 3.1 ml/min, respectively; p less than 0.05). No significant protection was observed when acadesine was given only during reperfusion. In dose-response studies, acadesine (0, 5, 20, 50, 200, and 1,000 mumol/l; n = 12 per group) was given only as a cardioplegic additive; the postischemic recoveries of aortic flow were 15.4 +/- 2.8, 16.9 +/- 3.6, 29.5 +/- 3.8, 27.4 +/- 3.8, 26.7 +/- 4.2, and 27.1 +/- 2.7 ml/min, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS Acadesine improves the ability of the heart to recover from ischemia and reperfusion when administered before ischemia or with cardioplegia. The mechanism underlying the protection remains to be resolved.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association