Influence of the force-frequency relation on left ventricular function during exercise in conscious dogs.
BACKGROUND The magnitude of the force-frequency effect on myocardial contractility in the conscious animal has been studied at rest, but it has not been assessed during exercise.
METHODS AND RESULTS The influence of heart rate (HR) changes were evaluated during treadmill exercise in eight preinstrumented, conscious dogs in which high-fidelity left ventricular (LV) pressure, LV volume (by sonomicrometry), and aortic pressure were measured. Under resting conditions, end-systolic pressure-volume relations were obtained using inferior vena caval occlusion. Dogs were run on a treadmill, and the intrinsic exercise HR was reduced by infusion of a specific bradycardic drug (UL-FS 49 0.5 mg/kg) during continuing exercise while HR was maintained at 240 beats per minute by atrial pacing. At 6 minutes of running at a fixed, paced HR when a stable drug effect had been achieved, no effects of UL-FS 49 on measures of LV contractility were detected compared with exercise before drug administration. HR was then reduced stepwise from 240 to 210, 180, or 150 beats per minute in a random manner, returning to 240 beats per minute between steps. Progressive reductions in measures of myocardial contractility occurred as the HR was slowed, and reduction of rate from 240 to 150 beats per minute reduced the LV maximum positive dP/dt by 31% and (dP/dt)DP40 by 21% despite increases in LV end-diastolic pressure. The entire end-systolic pressure-volume could not be determined during exercise, but beat-averaged end-systolic pressure-volume points during exercise were progressively shifted to the right and downward by slowing the exercise HR. Thus, a pronounced negative inotropic influence of slowing the heart was observed during exercise, and the rate of ventricular relaxation (tau) was also significantly prolonged.
CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that force-frequency effects on the inotropic state of the intact LV are markedly enhanced by exercise.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association