Differences in clinical expression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with two distinct mutations in the beta-myosin heavy chain gene. A 908Leu----Val mutation and a 403Arg----Gln mutation.
BACKGROUND The disease gene for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been identified as the beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) gene in some HCM families. We describe extensive clinical evaluations in two kindreds with two distinct point mutations in the beta-MHC gene.
METHODS AND RESULTS We used single-strand confirmation polymorphism (SSCP) gel analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified products capturing each of the 40 beta-MHC gene exons to identify distinct missense mutations in two HCM kindreds. Clinical, ECG, and echocardiographic studies were performed in the two kindreds: kindred 2755 with amino acid 908Leu----Val mutation and kindred 2002 with amino acid 403Arg----Gln mutation. The morphological appearances of HCM were similar in these two kindreds. However, the two kindreds differed with respect to disease penetrance, age of onset of disease, and incidence of premature sudden death. Twelve of 31 adults (greater than or equal to 17 years) with the disease gene in kindred 2755 did not have left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and only five of these had ECG abnormalities. Thus, the disease penetrance in adults with this mutation was only 61%. None of 11 children aged less than 16 years had LVH. The 908 mutation was associated with a low incidence of cardiac events: Only two sudden deaths and one syncope occurred in 46 individuals with the mutant allele. In contrast, LVH was present in all 11 adults in kindred 2002 with the 403 mutation (100% disease penetrance). In addition, three of four affected children were symptomatic and had clinical evidence of HCM. The disease in this kindred was severe and resulted in six premature sudden deaths. Seven additional patients had syncope or presyncope.
CONCLUSIONS In some kindreds, the HCM disease gene is more prevalent than indicated by echocardiography and ECG. Some point mutations may be associated with a more malignant prognosis. Preclinical identification of children with mutations associated with a high incidence of sudden death and syncope provides the opportunity to evaluate efficacy of early therapeutic interventions.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association