Intracoronary stenting for acute and threatened closure complicating percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
BACKGROUND. Acute closure remains a significant limitation of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and underlies the majority of ischemic complications. This study details the clinical and angiographic characteristics of a series of patients receiving an intracoronary stent device to manage acute and threatened closure and presents the early clinical results. METHODS AND RESULTS. From October 1989 through June 1991, 115 patients undergoing PTCA received intracoronary stents to treat acute or threatened closure in 119 vessels. Sixty-three percent had multivessel coronary disease, 33 (29%) had undergone prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and 52 (45%) had had previous PTCA. Using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) classification, 15% of lesions were class A, 55% were class B, and 30% were class C. Eight patients were referred with severe coronary dissection and unstable angina after PTCA at other institutions. Acute closure was defined as occlusion of the vessel with TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) 0 or 1 flow immediately before stent placement. Threatened closure required two or more of the following criteria: 1) a residual stenosis greater than 50%, 2) TIMI grade 2 flow, 3) angiographic dissection comprising extraluminal dye extravasation and/or a length of greater than 15 mm, 4) evidence of clinical ischemia (either typical angina or ECG changes). Twelve vessels (10%) met the criteria for acute closure, and 87 vessels (73%) satisfied the criteria for threatened closure. Twenty vessels (17%) failed to meet two criteria. Stenting produced optimal angiographic results in 111 vessels (93%), with mean diameter stenosis (+/- 1 SD) reduced from 83 +/- 12% before to 18 +/- 29% after stenting. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 1.7% and CABG was required in 4.2%; Q wave myocardial infarction (MI) occurred in 7% and non-Q wave MI in 9%. Stent thrombosis occurred in nine patients (7.6%). For the 108 patients who presented to the catheterization laboratory without evolving MI, Q wave MI occurred in 4% and non-Q wave MI occurred in 7%. Angiographic follow-up has been performed in 81 eligible patients (76%), and 34 patients (41%) had a lesion of greater than or equal to 50%. CONCLUSIONS. This stent may be a useful adjunct to balloon dilatation in acute or threatened closure. Randomized studies comparing this stent with alternative technologies are required.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association