Selective inhibition of the contractile apparatus. A new approach to modification of infarct size, infarct composition, and infarct geometry during coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion.
BACKGROUND Myocardial reperfusion is associated with calcium overload and cell contracture, mechanisms that may precipitate cell death. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that in vivo inhibition of this contracture could lead to cell preservation in an open-chest large animal model.
METHODS AND RESULTS Regional myocardium function was measured during a selective intracoronary infusion of 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), a specific inhibitor of actin-myosin coupling, in the control state (10 pigs) and in a protocol of a 51-minute coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (40 pigs). The effects on coronary artery blood flow in the basal state were also studied (seven pigs). Intramyocardial distribution of the infusate during coronary occlusion, myocardial water content after 30 minutes of reperfusion and area at risk, infarct size, type of histological necrosis, and infarct geometry after 24 hours of reperfusion were assessed. Methods used included electromagnetic flowmeter, radiolabeled microspheres, subendocardial sonomicrometers, fluorescein, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and Masson's trichrome staining, and computer quantification of infarct edges. In the absence of ischemia, BDM infusion inhibited regional shortening in a dose-dependent manner up to full systolic bulging while producing marked regional increase in coronary blood flow. During early reperfusion, BDM reduced end-diastolic length 76% more than the control infusion (p less than 0.05) and increased systolic bulging by 420% compared with no change in control animals. The ratio of infarct size/area at risk was reduced by 31% with BDM (p less than 0.05), with striking modifications of infarct histology and infarct geometry; specifically, the extent of contraction band necrosis was reduced by 63% from 105.5 +/- 18.2 to 39.2 +/- 13.6 mm2 (p less than 0.02), and more patches of necrosis (6.5 +/- 2.1 versus 1.6 +/- 0.4, p less than 0.05) and higher contour (7.7 +/- 1.2 versus 5.03 +/- 0.2, p less than 0.05) and fractal (12.1 +/- 1.3 versus 7.8 +/- 0.2, p less than 0.05) indexes were found.
CONCLUSIONS Selective intracoronary infusion of BDM at doses inhibiting regional wall motion decreased infarct size after reperfusion. The effects of BDM on regional function, the reduction in contraction band necrosis at histology, and the peculiar configuration of these infarcts all suggest that inhibition of contracture can interfere with cell-to-cell progression of myocardial necrosis, supporting a role for contracture in reperfusion-induced cell death.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association