Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban Costa Rica.
BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease (CAD) is becoming more prevalent in developing countries, particularly in the urban areas, in contrast to the CAD mortality trends observed in some industrialized nations.
METHODS AND RESULTS We determined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity, total cholesterol greater than or equal to 240 mg/dl and greater than or equal to 200 less than or equal to 239 mg/dl, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol greater than or equal to 160 mg/dl and greater than 130 less than or equal to 159 mg/dl, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol less than 35 mg/dl) in 222 men and 243 women from rural and urban areas of Puriscal, Costa Rica, using the American Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. Urban Puriscal men had a significantly (p less than 0.05) higher prevalence of borderline high-risk total cholesterol (26% versus 14%), borderline high-risk LDL cholesterol (21% versus 11%), smoking (32% versus 13%), and higher prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (34% versus 24%), hypertension (16% versus 13%), diabetes (4.5% versus 2.7%), obesity (21% versus 14%), and saturated fat intake greater than 15% of calories (14% versus 7%) than rural men from Puriscal. No significant differences between rural and urban women were found for any of the cardiovascular risk factors. Urban Puriscal residents were also more sedentary than rural Puriscal residents.
CONCLUSIONS These data indicate that modifiable risk factors are more prevalent in urban than in rural Puriscal, Costa Rica, particularly in men.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association