Pharmacokinetics of tissue-type plasminogen activator during acute myocardial infarction in men. Effect of a prostacyclin analogue.
BACKGROUND Coronary reocclusion complicates the thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction despite the routine use of aspirin. This is consistent with experimental studies demonstrating that multiple agonists, in addition to thromboxane A2, mediate the platelet activation underlying reocclusion. Consequently, a more potent antiplatelet therapy with a broader spectrum of activity than aspirin may be required in this setting. Prostacyclin and its more stable analogue, iloprost, inhibit platelet aggregation to all known agonists and exert an additional effect over aspirin alone. Experiments in animal models have demonstrated, however, that iloprost increases the clearance of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and impairs thrombolysis in vivo. This study examines whether a similar interaction occurs in humans.
METHODS AND RESULTS Twelve patients with acute myocardial infarction received t-PA intravenously, 60 mg in the first hour and a maintenance infusion of 13.3 mg/hr for 3 hours. Patients were assigned in a double-blind fashion to iloprost (2 ng/kg/min) or placebo following the initial 90 minutes of the maintenance infusion of t-PA. Iloprost decreased mean arterial blood pressure (-10 +/- 2.9 mm Hg, p less than 0.05) but did not alter heart rate. Steady-state plasma iloprost concentration was 591 +/- 64 pmol/l. At this concentration, iloprost markedly inhibited platelet aggregation in vitro, particularly in the presence of aspirin. Steady-state clearance of t-PA was unchanged by iloprost (454 +/- 65 versus 443 +/- 136 ml/min in controls, p = NS). Furthermore, neither elimination kinetics nor plasma protein binding of t-PA was altered by iloprost.
CONCLUSIONS At plasma levels that exert a potent antiplatelet effect, iloprost did not alter the pharmacokinetics of t-PA in men. Prostacyclin analogues may prove useful as an adjunct to plasminogen activators, particularly in patients at high risk for thrombotic reocclusion.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association