Normalization of coronary vasomotion after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty?
BACKGROUND Coronary vasomotion was evaluated at rest and during bicycle exercise in 33 patients (age, 53 +/- 7 years) with coronary artery disease. In a first group of patients (n = 15), vasomotion was studied before and 4.3 +/- 2.3 months (early) after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), whereas in a second group (n = 18), exercise coronary arteriography was performed 30 +/- 11 months (late) after successful PTCA. Patients with restenosis (percent area stenosis greater than or equal to 75% or percent diameter stenosis greater than or equal to 50%) were excluded.
METHODS AND RESULTS Luminal areas of a normal segment and the stenotic segment were determined at rest, during supine bicycle exercise, and 5 minutes after sublingual nitrate administration by using biplane quantitative coronary arteriography. Work loads before and early after PTCA were identical in group 1 and similar late after PTCA in group 2. Percent area stenosis decreased from 86% to 36% (p less than 0.001) in group 1 and from 93% to 46% (p less than 0.001) in group 2. Normal coronary arteries showed mild vasodilation during exercise before (+3%, NS versus rest), early (+7%, NS versus rest), and late after (+10%, p less than 0.05 versus rest) PTCA. Administration of sublingual nitrate was associated with significant vasodilation of the normal vessel segment before (+27%, p less than 0.001 versus rest), early (+31%, p less than 0.001 versus rest), and late (+21%, p less than 0.001 versus rest) after PTCA. In contrast, the stenotic vessel segments showed coronary vasoconstriction during exercise before PTCA (-25%, p less than 0.001 versus rest), whereas minimal vasomotion was observed early (+2%; NS versus rest) as well as late (+5%; NS versus rest) after PTCA. Individual post-PTCA (early and late) exercise data elicited vasodilation in 19, no vasomotion in four, and vasoconstriction in 10 instances. Sublingual administration of nitrate was associated with a significant increase in minimal luminal area before (+18%, p less than 0.05 versus rest), early (+24%, p less than 0.01 versus rest), and late (+16%, p less than 0.001 versus rest) after PTCA. An inverse linear correlation was found between the percent change in minimal luminal area during peak exercise and percent area stenosis at rest (r = 0.77, p less than 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS Exercise-induced stenosis narrowing is observed before PTCA but normal vasomotion is reestablished in two thirds of all patients early and late after PTCA. In one third, an abnormal reaction to exercise (i.e., vasoconstriction) persisted after PTCA, mainly in those patients with a residual area stenosis of 50% (percent diameter stenosis of 30%) or more. Thus, PTCA appears to have a salutary effect on coronary vasomotion during exercise, which, however, remains dependent on the severity of the residual stenosis.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association