Noninvasive arterial thrombus imaging with 99mTc monoclonal antifibrin antibody.
BACKGROUND The T2G1s monoclonal antifibrin antibody binds specifically to fibrin but not to fibrinogen.
METHODS AND RESULTS In a canine model of acute arterial thrombosis, we determined the feasibility of imaging thrombi using a 99mTc-labeled Fab' fragment. In 14 dogs, 10 carotid and 13 femoral artery thrombi were produced using 2-hour temporary occlusion, crush injury, and local thrombin injection methods. A sham-operated carotid artery served as control. Antifibrin antibody was injected intravenously at the end of temporary occlusion. Serial planar radionuclide images were obtained immediately and at 1 and 2 hours. Following killing the dogs at 2 hours, we measured antibody uptake ex vivo in 5-mm-long segments of thrombus, the adjacent injured artery, and a control artery. Antibody was cleared from the blood with a mean +/- SD t1/2 of 121 +/- 23 minutes. The thrombi weighed 218 +/- 140 mg. Antibody uptake in the thrombi was patchy, and the thrombi were closely adherent to the injured arterial wall. In the segment with maximal ex vivo antibody uptake, the ratio of control artery to blood counts/g/sec was 0.65 +/- 0.46, the injured artery-to-blood ratio was 2.35 +/- 1.01 (p less than 0.0001 versus control), and the thrombus-to-blood ratio was 4.24 +/- 2.58 (p less than 0.0001 versus control). In three dogs, an isotype-matched ovarian tumor antibody labeled with 111In was injected with T2G1s but was not taken up in the thrombus or the adjacent arterial wall. Visual analysis of the in vivo carotid radionuclide images showed uptake by 2 hours in all 10 carotid thrombi. Quantitative image analysis, measured as the thrombus-to-opposite carotid artery ratio, showed increasing uptake over time with ratios of 1.1 +/- 0.3, 1.6 +/- 2.0, and 2.2 +/- 1.3 on the immediate, 1-hour, and 2-hour images, respectively. All quantitative ratios of 1.3 or greater were visually identified.
CONCLUSIONS 99mTc-labeled Fab' fragments of the T2G1s antibody are taken up specifically by acute arterial thrombi after intravenous injection. Uptake is progressive over a 2-hour period, and all thrombi are detected by radionuclide imaging at 2 hours. These results show that it is feasible to noninvasively detect arterial thrombi within 2 hours of formation.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association