Increased urinary leukotriene excretion in patients with cardiac ischemia. In vivo evidence for 5-lipoxygenase activation.
BACKGROUND Experimental cardiac ischemia in some animal models results in the activation of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase and the subsequent production of leukotrienes, potent proinflammatory lipid mediators, by the affected myocardium. Furthermore, prototype antileukotriene drugs can show some beneficial effects on infarct size and cardiac function in these models. Accordingly, urinary excretion of leukotriene E4 (LTE4), the major urinary metabolite of peptide leukotrienes in humans, was measured in patients admitted to the hospital with evidence of acute myocardial ischemia to assess in vivo release of 5-lipoxygenase products during and after the ischemic episode.
METHODS AND RESULTS Urinary leukotriene excretion was measured by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and specific radioimmunoassay on admission with acute chest pain and again on day 3 in the following patient groups: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), AMI and clinical evidence of early reperfusion after treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), diagnosis of unstable angina (UA) based on clinical history and coronary arteriography, controls with nonischemic chest pain who underwent coronary arteriography, and age-matched controls and normal hospital employees. In 16 patients with diagnosis of AMI, LTE4 excretion on admission (331 +/- 99 pg/mg creatinine sulfate; mean +/- SEM) was considerably higher than that measured on day 3 (195 +/- 59 pg/mg creatinine sulfate). In a subgroup of seven subjects treated with rt-PA resulting in early reperfusion, day 1 excretion was similar (215 +/- 50 pg/mg) but had significantly declined by day 3 (65 +/- 16 pg/mg; p less than 0.01). Urinary LTE4 excretion at admission for chest pain was also elevated in 14 patients having unstable angina (UA; 370 +/- 125 pg LTE4/mg creatinine sulfate). This had declined significantly (p less than 0.05) by day 3 (at which time chest pain had resolved) to 94 +/- 31 pg/mg creatinine sulfate, an excretion rate comparable with that measured in eight similarly aged subjects (64 +/- 12 pg/mg creatinine).
CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that peptide leukotrienes are released during episodes of myocardial ischemia and provides clinical evidence for involvement of their biosynthetic enzyme, 5-lipoxygenase, during and after acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina attacks. Thus, potent and specific orally active leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in limiting myocardial damage and functional abnormalities after acute ischemia.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association