Two-dimensional echocardiographic phase analysis. Its potential for noninvasive localization of accessory pathways in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.
BACKGROUND In patients with the preexcitation syndrome who are undergoing transcatheter or surgical ablation, accurate localization of accessory pathways is critical. Because preexcitation is known to alter ventricular activation sequence and result in focal areas with presystolic contraction, we investigated whether phase analysis applied to two-dimensional echocardiographic cine loops objectively identifies these focal areas and can be used to localize ventricular insertion sites of accessory pathways.
METHODS AND RESULTS We prospectively obtained phase images in 17 patients (11 males; age range, 11-35 years) during minimal preexcitation in normal sinus rhythm and during maximal preexcitation induced by right atrial pacing. A group of 11 normal subjects (six men; age range, 26-37 years) served as controls. Pathway locations predicted from phase imaging were compared with those predicted from routine 12-lead ECGs, from visual inspection of cine loop images, and from catheter-mounted electrode endocardial mapping. Cross-sectional views in a digital cine loop format were mathematically transformed using a first harmonic Fourier algorithm to obtain the corresponding phase images. Phase angle histograms were derived in eight wall segments. Mean and earliest phase angles were derived by computer analysis to quantitate contraction sequence. We found that during right atrial pacing, phase angles in focal areas markedly deviated from normal--mean phase angles from 33 degrees to 164 degrees, and earliest phase angles from 50 degrees to 180 degrees. Accessory pathways could be precisely localized in 53% of the patients by 12-lead ECG, in 59% by visual inspection of cine loop images, in 82% by phase imaging, and in 94% by a combination of the three methods.
CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that phase imaging, especially when used in combination with cine loop and 12-lead ECG, can be used to localize ventricular insertion sites of accessory pathways and may be clinically useful as a noninvasive adjunct to endocardial mapping in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association