Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of chronic total occlusions. Primary success, restenosis, and long-term clinical follow-up.
BACKGROUND Angioplasty of chronically totally occluded vessels has been associated with a success rate well below and restenosis rate well above that for angioplasty of stenosed segments. However, long-term clinical outcome after successful revascularization of a chronically totally occluded vessel has not been reported in detail.
METHODS AND RESULTS Accordingly, data for 480 patients undergoing angioplasty for chronic total occlusion at Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga., from 1980 to 1988 were analyzed for predictors of in-hospital procedural and clinical (procedural success and absence of in-hospital complications) success, restenosis, and 4-year clinical follow-up. The study population was grouped by procedural and clinical success and failure. The groups were then compared for outcome, both in hospital and long term. The initial clinical success rate was 66% (317 of 480 patients). Independent correlates of failure were the number of vessels diseased (p less than 0.001), vessel location of the lesion (p = 0.016), and absence of any distal antegrade filling (p = 0.002). Follow-up data revealed 98% cardiac survival and 96% overall survival at 4 years for the group as a whole. Freedom from myocardial infarction or cardiac death was significantly greater in patients with clinical success (93%) than with clinical failure (89%, p = 0.0044). In the successful group, 87% were free from coronary surgery after 4 years compared with 64% in the failure group (p less than 0.0001). Two thirds of the patients were free of angina at last follow-up. The presence of angina at follow-up was the same for patients successfully treated and for those with failed angioplasty, which may be related to the frequent use of coronary surgery in the failure group.
CONCLUSIONS In well-selected cases, the success rate for angioplasty of chronic total occlusion is acceptable. Furthermore, long-term clinical benefit is suggested by the high freedom from coronary surgery, myocardial infarction, and death in the patients who underwent successful revascularization.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association