Desensitization of myocardial beta-adrenergic receptors during cardiopulmonary bypass. Evidence for early uncoupling and late downregulation.
BACKGROUND Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), a process routinely used during cardiac surgery, is a potent stimulant to the release of endogenous catecholamines. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that CPB results in myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor (beta AR) desensitization.
METHODS AND RESULTS We obtained canine transmyocardial left ventricular biopsies before, during (155 minutes), and after CPB (pre-CPB, CPB, and post-CPB, respectively) and determined beta AR density, proportion of beta 1AR to beta 2AR, and beta AR coupling capacity to adenylyl cyclase. Beta AR density was stable at 112 +/- 14 fmol/mg (pre-CPB) and 103 +/- 9 fmol/mg (CPB) but decreased post-CPB to 84 +/- 7 fmol/mg. The ratio of beta 1AR to beta 2AR (determined by two-site fit for [125I]-iodocyanopindolol competition binding with the beta 1AR selective antagonist ICI89.406) remained constant throughout (60 +/- 3: 40 +/- 3 pre-CPB, 55 +/- 3: 44 +/- 3 CPB, and 61 +/- 2: 39 +/- 2 post-CPB), revealing that both beta 1AR and beta 2AR subtypes were downregulated. A different pattern was noted in the functional properties of these receptors during CPB. Decreased maximal isoproterenol-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity (252 +/- 14 to 216 +/- 12 pmol/30 min/mg), submaximal isoproterenol-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity (183 +/- 10 to 157 +/- 11 pmol/30 min/mg), and zinterol-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity (187 +/- 11 to 159 +/- 11 pmol/30 min/mg, a measure of beta 2AR subtype activation) were noted during CPB, at the time when weaning from CPB takes place. However, this desensitized pattern was found to be completely reversed by 30 minutes post-CPB, with adenylyl cyclase activities returning to pre-CPB levels or slightly higher. Control dogs that did not receive CPB showed no change in beta AR density or adenylyl cyclase activity.
CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that myocardial beta AR desensitization does occur during CPB in healthy, nonischemic canine myocardium and that this pattern is reversed 30 minutes after discontinuation of CPB. In addition, a slower process of beta AR downregulation persists after discontinuation of CPB. Because successful weaning from CPB is a critical process during myocardial surgery, these findings have potentially important implications in the management of such patients.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association