Transcatheter occlusion of the persistently patent ductus arteriosus. Forty-month follow-up and prevalence of residual shunting.
BACKGROUND Percutaneous closure of the persistently patent ductus arteriosus with the Rashkind prosthesis is an established effective therapeutic modality, although some patients are left with residual shunting. To evaluate this, a retrospective study of the prevalence of persistent shunting over a 40-month period in the first 190 patients was undertaken.
METHODS AND RESULTS All patients (male 45, female 145; mean age, 3.9 +/- 3.6 years; range, 5 months to 20 years) had serial clinical and color-flow echocardiographic follow-up at 6-12-month intervals (range, 6-40 months). Four patients required surgical removal of an embolized device, leaving a cohort of 186 patients in whom 196 procedures were performed, resulting in successful placement of 195 devices (43 17-mm [22%] and 152 12-mm [78%]). Complications occurred in seven of 195 procedures (3.6%). Nine of 10 attempted reocclusions (all with 12-mm devices) were successful. The prevalence of residual shunting was 38% at 1 year, 18% at 2 years, and 8% at 40 months. Patients with ductus measuring less than 4 mm had a higher success of initial occlusion. Thirty-four patients were left with residual shunting determined by color-flow Doppler study, but no anatomic or echocardiographic features were found predictive for residual shunting. All remain asymptomatic with 26 (76%) having no detectable murmur, two (6%) a continuous murmur, and six (18%) a systolic murmur.
CONCLUSIONS Catheter occlusion will obviate the need for surgery in the majority of patients presenting with persistently patent ductus arteriosus. Reocclusion has been found feasible in those with continuous murmurs (nine of nine) and should be offered early because it is unlikely for spontaneous closure to occur in this group. It appears prudent to follow those with small residual shunting because further spontaneous closure can occur.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association