Randomized study to evaluate the relation between oral isosorbide dinitrate dosing interval and the development of early tolerance to its effect on left ventricular filling pressure in patients with chronic heart failure.
BACKGROUND Early development of nitrate tolerance has been shown in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) receiving continuous nitroglycerin therapy. The influence of dosing interval of oral isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), the nitrate preparation most widely used for the treatment of CHF, has not been investigated.
METHODS AND RESULTS We performed a prospective, randomized study to evaluate the effect of various regimens of oral ISDN on the development of early tolerance to its effect on left ventricular filling pressure in patients with moderate to severe CHF. Forty-four responders (20% or greater reduction in mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure lasting 1 hour or longer) were divided into four groups of 11 patients each, and randomized to receive their effective ISDN dose (40-120 mg) Q 4 hours, Q 6 hours, Q 8 hours, or t.i.d. (drug given at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours allowing 12 hours of ISDN washout interval between the third and fourth doses). All groups demonstrated a significant and comparable reduction in LV filling pressure following administration of the first ISDN dose. Early attenuation of hemodynamic response was demonstrated with frequent dosing (Q 4 hours and Q 6 hours) ISDN. Tolerance was with a Q 8-hour regimen as demonstrated by preserved hemodynamic response to each dose. The effect of each dose, however, was short-term, with return of pulmonary artery wedge pressure to baseline level at 2 to 4 hours, resulting in an intermittent effect totaling no longer than 12 hours of the 30-hour study period. The use of a t.i.d. regimen resulted in marked attenuation of response after the third dose with complete restoration of nitrate effect following a 12-hour washout period between the third and fourth doses. ISDN plasma concentration was measured in five patients in each of the Q 4- and Q 8-hour groups. In the Q 4-hour group, plasma levels were significantly higher after administration of the last dose than after the first dose (area under the curve, 242 +/- 216 versus 123 +/- 130 ng/ml, p less than 0.05), and trough levels before administration of the second and the fifth dose (15 +/- 17 and 27 +/- 27 ng/ml, respectively) were both markedly higher than the baseline value of 2 +/- 4 ng/ml.
CONCLUSIONS Our data demonstrate the development of tolerance and early attenuation of effect on left ventricular filling pressure with frequent oral dosing (Q 4 and Q 6 hours) with ISDN in patients with chronic CHF, which may be related to persistently elevated trough blood levels of ISDN. The development of tolerance can be reversed after a washout period of 12 hours and can be prevented with a Q 8-hour administration. These regimens, however, are limited by an inconsistent effect. Although long-term implications of these findings need further evaluation, the present study demonstrates the difficulty of maintaining a persistent ISDN-mediated reduction in left ventricular filling pressure in patients with chronic, moderate to severe CHF. These results suggest the need to use intermittent ISDN therapy allowing a daily nitrate washout interval and the rationale for combined vasodilator therapy in patients with CHF.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association