Three-dimensional reconstruction of human coronary and peripheral arteries from images recorded during two-dimensional intravascular ultrasound examination.
BACKGROUND Intravascular ultrasound provides high-resolution images of vascular lumen, plaque, and subjacent structures in the vessel wall; current instrumentation, however, limits the operator to viewing a single, tomographic, two-dimensional image at any one time. Comparative analysis of serial two-dimensional images requires repeated review of the video playback recorded during the two-dimensional examination, followed by a "mind's eye" type of imagined reconstruction.
METHODS AND RESULTS Computer-based, automated three-dimensional reconstruction was used to generate a tangible format with which to assess and compare a "stacked" series of two-dimensional images. Three-dimensional representations were prepared from sequential images obtained during intravascular ultrasound examination in 52 patients, 50 of whom were studied before and/or after percutaneous revascularization. Conventional two-dimensional ultrasound images were acquired by means of a systematic, timed pullback of the ultrasound catheter through the respective vascular segments. Images were then assembled in automated fashion to create a three-dimensional depiction of the vessel lumen and wall. Computer-enhanced three-dimensional reconstructions were generated in both sagittal and cylindrical formats. The sagittal format resulted in a longitudinal profile similar to that obtained during angiographic examination; in contrast to angiography, however, the sagittal reconstruction offered 360 degrees of limitless orthogonal views of the plaque and arterial wall as well as the vascular lumen. The cylindrical format yielded a composite view of a given vascular segment, and a hemisected version of the cylindrical reconstruction enabled en face inspection of the reconstructed luminal surface. Sagittal reconstructions facilitated analysis of dissections and plaque fractures resulting from percutaneous revascularization, and the hemisected cylindrical reconstructions enhanced analysis of endovascular prostheses.
CONCLUSIONS This preliminary experience demonstrates that computer-based three-dimensional reconstruction may further augment the use of intravascular ultrasound in assessing vascular pathology and guiding interventional therapy.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association