Effects of dietary omega 3 fatty acids on vascular contractility in preanoxic and postanoxic aortic rings.
BACKGROUND Vasomotor reactivity may contribute to the pathophysiology of ischemic injury. The atherosclerotic vessel may be particularly susceptible to vasoconstriction because of the damaged endothelial layer with resultant loss of vasodilatory factors. While dietary omega 3 fatty acids have been proposed to protect against vascular occlusion, it is not clear to what extent this results from alterations in the function of platelets or from changes intrinsic to the blood vessel itself.
METHODS AND RESULTS The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oils on vascular contractility were examined in endothelialized and de-endothelialized aortic rings under pre- and postanoxic conditions. De-endothelialization was defined functionally by the loss of acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in norepinephrine-preconstricted aortic rings from rats fed normal rat chow. Three groups of rats were fed diets containing either 20% menhaden oil or 20% beef tallow, both supplemented with 3% corn oil or 23% corn oil for longer than 4 weeks. All animals received vitamin E. Under well-oxygenated conditions, de-endothelialized aortic rings from rats fed fish oil and corn oil contracted to similar extents with norepinephrine and vasopressin and less than rings from rats fed beef tallow. Endothelialized (intact) and de-endothelialized rings from rats fed fish oil relaxed more in response to acetylcholine than rings from rats fed beef tallow and corn oil. After anoxic exposure and reoxygenation, KCl-induced contraction of intact rings from rats fed fish oil and corn oil was similar and less than rings from rats fed beef tallow. Intact and de-endothelialized rings from rats fed fish oil relaxed more to acetylcholine than did rings from rats fed beef tallow and corn oil.
CONCLUSIONS Under preanoxic or postanoxic conditions, rings from rats fed fish oil and corn oil contracted less than rings from rats fed beef tallow. The relaxation response to acetylcholine, however, was greater in rings from rats fed fish oil than from rats fed either corn oil or beef tallow. These vascular effects of fish oil feeding may result in increased blood flow to ischemic and reperfused tissues in vivo.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association