Effect of altered activation sequence on epicardial QRST area and refractory period in dogs.
BACKGROUND We investigated the effects of activation sequence on cardiac surface QRST areas and refractory periods in experiments on dogs.
METHODS AND RESULTS Right and left ventricular pacings were performed, and the pacing site was altered every 6 minutes. After 4 minutes of a given pacing, 54 unipolar electrograms distributed over the entire cardiac surface were recorded. Next, refractory periods at electrode sites near pacing electrodes were measured. Paired right ventricular/left ventricular (RV/LV) pacing data were obtained six or seven times in each sample. Although the QRST isoarea maps during the two activation orders were qualitatively similar, it was recognized consistently from the right ventricle-left ventricle difference map that leads around the RV free wall had positive values and that leads around the LV free wall and apex had negative values. Compared with the same leads at RV and LV pacing, QRST areas were larger when pacing sites were near the leads. The local QRST areas of individual leads at which we measured local refractory period were consistently larger during drive from proximal pacing sites than during drive from distant pacing sites. Refractory periods were consistently longer during proximal pacing than during distal pacing, and there was a positive correlation between change in local QRST area and change in refractory period (r = 0.64) during altered activation sequence, whereas there was an inverse correlation between change in QRST area and change in refractory period (r = -0.91) during localized myocardial warming.
CONCLUSIONS Both local QRST areas and local refractory periods were dependent on the activation sequence, and there was a positive correlation between QRST areas and refractory periods during various activation sequences compared with localized myocardial warming.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association