Dipyridamole echocardiography test. A new tool for detecting jeopardized myocardium after thrombolytic therapy.
BACKGROUND We wished to assess whether dipyridamole echocardiography test (DET) can detect jeopardized myocardium after thrombolytic therapy.
METHODS AND RESULTS Seventy-six consecutive patients with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were treated with 2 million IU urokinase i.v. within 4 hours of the onset of AMI and underwent high-dose (as much as 0.84 mg/kg over 10 minutes) DET 8-10 days after AMI. The results were correlated to the anatomy of the infarct-related vessel (IRV). In patients with positive DET, we evaluated the wall motion score index (WMSI; a semiquantitative integrated estimation of extent and severity of the stress-induced dyssynergy). WMSI was derived by summation of individual segment scores divided by the number of interpreted segments. In a 13-segment model, each segment was assigned a score ranging from 1 (normal) to 4 (dyskinetic). Fifty-three patients had positive results on DET. Of these, 42 had dipyridamole-induced new wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) confined to the infarct zone or adjacent segments. In these patients, mean WMSI increased from 1.46 +/- 0.26 (at resting conditions) to 1.73 +/- 0.35 (at peak dipyridamole) (p less than 0.01), whereas no significant change was detected in negative patients (1.6 +/- 0.34 versus 1.57 +/- 0.34, p = NS). Coronary angiography showed a patent IRV (TIMI grade 2 or 3) in 53 patients and no or minimal reperfusion (TIMI grade 0 or 1) in 23 patients. A patent IRV with critical residual stenosis was found in 35 of 42 patients with dipyridamole-induced WMAs in the infarct zone and in 18 of 34 patients without WMAs (p less than 0.05). Among the 23 patients with occluded IRVs, nine had collateral flow to the distal vessel; six of these had a positive DET. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity for identifying a critically stenotic but patent IRV or the presence of a collateral-dependent zone were 66% and 93%, respectively. In a subset of nine patients with a positive DET in the infarct zone or adjacent segments, DET and a control coronary angiography were repeated 1-3 months after an angiographically successful (residual stenosis, 50% or less) coronary angioplasty in the IRV. The repeat DET was negative in eight patients (all with patent IRV at control angiography) and again positive in one patient, who showed restenosis at angiography. The WMSI, at resting conditions was similar before and after angioplasty, whereas it differed significantly at peak dipyridamole (1.7 +/- 0.2 versus 1.4 +/- 0.2, p less than 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS DET can identify the anatomy of the IRV, and dipyridamole-induced WMAs within the infarct zone detect regions with jeopardized myocardium that may benefit from intervention.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association