Epicardial and endocardial mapping of ventricular tachycardia in patients with myocardial infarction. Is the origin of the tachycardia always subendocardially localized?
BACKGROUND Left ventricular endocardial reentry is the conventional concept underlying surgery for ventricular tachycardia (VT). We assessed the incidences of patterns showing complete reentry circuits at either the subendocardial or subepicardial level and of patterns in which left ventricular endocardial mapping could only in part account for a reentrant mechanism.
METHODS AND RESULTS We retrospectively analyzed epicardial and left ventricular endocardial isochronal maps of 47 VTs induced in 28 patients with chronic myocardial infarction (inferior, 14 patients; anteroseptal, 14 patients). Electrograms were recorded intraoperatively from 128 sites with epicardial sock and transatrial left ventricular endocardial balloon electrode arrays. Given the methodology used in this study, the mapping characteristics of the tachycardias suggested five types of activation patterns: 1) complete (90% or more of VT cycle length) subendocardial reentry circuits in seven VTs (15%) and seven patients (25%), 2) complete subepicardial reentry circuits in four VTs (9%) and four patients (14%), 3) incompletely mapped circuits with a left ventricular endocardial breakthrough preceding the epicardial breakthrough in 25 VTs (53%) and 21 patients (75%), 4) incompletely mapped circuits with a left ventricular epicardial breakthrough preceding the endocardial breakthrough in three VTs (6%) and three patients (11%), and 5) a right ventricular epicardial breakthrough preceding the left ventricular endocardial breakthrough in eight VTs (17%) and seven patients (25%). After surgery, one type 3 VT and three type 5 VTs were reinducible. Thus, left ventricular endocardial reentry substrates (types 1 and 3) accounted for 68% of VTs, but substrates involving subepicardial (types 2 and 4) and deep septal layers (type 5) accounted for 32% of VTs.
CONCLUSIONS In a substantial number of VTs, a substrate localization that is at variance with the conventional concept can be detected by simultaneous epicardial and endocardial mapping and may require modification of the surgical approach conventionally aimed at endocardial layers.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association