Detection and localization of prolonged epicardial electrograms with 64-lead body surface signal-averaged electrocardiography.
BACKGROUND Prolonged, fractionated ventricular electrograms often are detectable after myocardial infarction and are a marker for an arrhythmia-prone state. QRS late potentials detected on the body surface with signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG) are thought to arise from the diseased tissue that generates prolonged ventricular electrograms and as such are also a marker for arrhythmias. A limitation of the current SAECG technique is that recordings are obtained from only three bipolar lead pairs. Because late potentials probably arise from multiple small sources in the heart, more extensive sampling of the body surface may contribute additional information to the SAECG: The present study investigates the additional sensitivity of SAECG using 64 body surface leads in detecting prolonged epicardial electrograms and examines its use in determining the epicardial location of prolonged electrograms.
METHODS AND RESULTS Dogs were studied before and 5-10 days after either lateral left ventricular (n = 13) or right ventricular (n = 8) myocardial infarction. Greater prolongation of signal-averaged QRS duration was detected with 64-lead SAECG (postinfarction QRS duration, 100.3 +/- 16.3 msec) than with three-lead SAECG (postinfarction QRS duration, 89.4 +/- 10.1, p = 0.0005). Nineteen of the 21 dogs (90%) had prolonged epicardial electrograms detected over the infarct. The correlation between epicardial electrogram duration and signal-averaged QRS duration calculated from individual leads was much better for 64-lead SAECG (r = 0.88, p less than 0.0001) than for three-lead SAECG (r = 0.53, p = 0.01), and the difference was most marked in cases with longer electrogram durations (more than 100 msec). Local late potential maxima on the thorax after lateral left ventricular infarction were located to the left and inferior compared with those after right ventricular infarction (p = 0.006).
CONCLUSIONS SAECG with more extensive recording from the body surface using 64 leads detects greater QRS prolongation than three-lead SAECG, and the longer QRS durations detected correspond to the duration of prolonged epicardial electrograms. Body surface location of late potentials corresponds to the epicardial location of the prolonged electrograms. This application of body surface mapping techniques to SAECG may permit more sensitive detection of arrhythmia-prone states and may aid in identifying arrhythmia sources.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association