Antithrombotic therapy for deep arterial injury by angioplasty. Efficacy of common platelet inhibition compared with thrombin inhibition in pigs.
BACKGROUND Platelet-thrombus formation is a complication of arterial wall deep injury by balloon angioplasty that may lead to acute arterial occlusion and may contribute to restenosis.
METHODS AND RESULTS Because common platelet-inhibitor drugs with a heparin bolus (100 units/kg) may be effective in inhibiting platelet-thrombus formation after arterial angioplasty, these were compared with a bolus of heparin alone (control), the specific thrombin inhibitor hirudin (1.0 mg/kg), and saline (hirudin control) in normal pigs after angioplasty of the common carotid arteries. In the presence of deep arterial wall injury (injury exposing the media), indium-111-labeled platelet deposition (x 10(6)/cm2) was 68.8 +/- 12.3 and 48.1 +/- 16.9 in the control animals. This was significantly reduced by pretreatment with low-dose aspirin (1 mg/kg/day), by high-dose aspirin (20 mg/kg/day) plus dipyridamole, and especially by thrombin inhibition with hirudin. Treatment regimens with aspirin alone (20 mg/kg/day), dipyridamole alone, or sulfinpyrazone were ineffective. Likewise, the incidence of mural thrombosis was 75% and 80% in deeply injured arteries of controls and was significantly reduced to 46% with aspirin plus dipyridamole, 25% with low-dose aspirin, and 0% with hirudin. The incidence of mural thrombosis was unchanged with high-dose aspirin (69%), dipyridamole (90%), or sulfinpyrazone (92%). This mural thrombosis could not be identified by angiography. In the presence of mild injury (deendothelialization), platelet deposition was low (less than 10 x 10(6)/cm2, a single layer) and was not changed by any therapy, including hirudin.
CONCLUSIONS These therapies do not affect platelet adhesion to deeply or mildly injured artery. These data suggest a greater role for thrombin inhibition than with thromboxane or cyclooxygenase inhibition in the pathogenesis of platelet-rich mural thrombosis after deep injury during angioplasty. Antithrombotic therapy for arterial thrombosis by thrombin inhibition appears promising.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association