Intermediate-term effectiveness of balloon valvuloplasty for congenital aortic stenosis. A prospective follow-up study.
BACKGROUND Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty has proven to be acutely effective in the treatment of congenital valvar aortic stenosis; however, the intermediate- and long-term effectiveness of the procedure remain to be documented.
METHODS AND RESULTS To assess the intermediate-term effectiveness of balloon valvuloplasty, repeat catheterization was performed in 27 of 30 children 1.7 +/- 0.1 years after balloon valvuloplasty for congenital aortic stenosis (AS). In 33 children the peak AS gradient was reduced acutely by 55% from 77 +/- 4 to 35 +/- 3 mm Hg (p less than 0.001), and left ventricular systolic pressure was reduced from 176 +/- 4 to 138 +/- 4 mm Hg (p less than 0.001). Despite a technically adequate valvuloplasty procedure, three patients had inadequate relief of obstruction and required complex surgical intervention. Twenty-seven of the 30 patients available for late reevaluation (90%) enrolled in the follow-up study. The peak AS gradient remained significantly reduced compared with that present before valvuloplasty (29 +/- 3 versus 77 +/- 4 mm Hg, p less than 0.001). Furthermore, there was no difference in peak AS gradient at follow-up compared with that immediately after valvuloplasty. The greatest increase in gradient at reevaluation was 14 mm Hg. Twenty of 27 patients (74%) had no change in the degree of aortic insufficiency at follow-up compared with that present before valvuloplasty. At follow-up, 16 patients had no aortic insufficiency at all, and only two had moderate-to-severe (3-4+) insufficiency. Femoral artery injury was documented in four patients, three of whom were under 12 months of age at valvuloplasty.
CONCLUSIONS Balloon aortic valvuloplasty provides safe and effective intermediate-term gradient relief without early restenosis in children and adolescents with congenital AS.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association