Hemodynamics and coronary blood flow during exercise after coronary artery bypass grafting with internal mammary arteries in children with Kawasaki disease.
BACKGROUND Saphenous vein grafts (SVG) and internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts have been used for coronary artery bypass grafting. In adult patients with bypass grafting for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, IMA grafts have been reported to have long-term patency; however, results are conflicting on whether the graft is sufficient to meet increased myocardial oxygen demand during exercise. There have been no studies on hemodynamics and blood flow during exercise after bypass grafting with IMA in pediatric patients with Kawasaki disease.
METHODS AND RESULTS We studied 17 pediatric patients with Kawasaki disease (average age, 7.5 +/- 3.1 years), who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with the IMA. The average number of coronary artery bypass grafts was 2.1 +/- 0.7/patient. For all patients, the left IMA was anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary artery; for eight patients, the right IMA was also anastomosed to the right coronary artery. In addition, 11 SVGs were used. The postoperative patency rates after 1 month were 100% with the IMA graft and 91% with SVG. One year after the operation, the patency rates were 100% with IMA and 50% with SVG. Hemodynamics during exercise were measured with a bicycle ergometer, and coronary sinus blood flow was measured by the continuous thermodilution method in six patients. The relation between delta LVEDP (the difference between left ventricular end-diastolic pressure at rest and during exercise) and delta SVI (the difference between the stroke volume index at rest and during exercise) was analyzed. Four of six patients had reduced cardiac function before operation (delta LVEDP, positive; delta SVI, negative). However, after the operation, all patients demonstrated improvements in cardiac function during exercise (delta LVEDP, positive; delta SVI, positive). Coronary sinus flow per left ventricular mass increased after operation from 70 +/- 46 to 87 +/- 56 ml/min at rest (p less than 0.05) and from 139 +/- 118 to 183 +/- 150 ml/min during exercise (p less than 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, this study reveals improvements in both hemodynamics and coronary blood flow during exercise after coronary artery bypass grafting with IMA grafts in pediatric patients with Kawasaki disease.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association