A prospective, randomized trial comparing combination half-dose tissue-type plasminogen activator and streptokinase with full-dose tissue-type plasminogen activator. Kentucky Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (KAMIT) Group.
BACKGROUND The potential benefits of combination thrombolytic agents in the treatment of myocardial infarction remain uncertain. In a small pilot study, we demonstrated that combining half-dose tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) with streptokinase (SK) achieved a high rate of infarct vessel patency and a low rate of reocclusion at half the cost of full-dose t-PA.
METHODS AND RESULTS We designed a prospective trial in which 216 patients were randomized within 6 hours of myocardial infarction to receive either the combination of half-dose (50 mg) t-PA with streptokinase (1.5 MU) during 1 hour or to the conventional dose of t-PA (100 mg) during 3 hours. Acute patency was determined by angiography at 90 minutes, and angioplasty was reserved for failed thrombolysis. Heparin and aspirin regimens were maintained until follow-up catheterization at day 7. Acute patency was significantly greater after t-PA/SK (79%) than with t-PA alone (64%, p less than 0.05). After angioplasty for failed thrombolysis, acute patency increased to 96% in both groups. Marked depletion of serum fibrinogen levels occurred after t-PA/SK compared with t-PA alone at 4 hours (37 +/- 36 versus 199 +/- 66 mg/dl, p less than 0.0001) and persisted 24 hours after therapy (153 +/- 66 versus 252 +/- 75 mg/dl, p less than 0.0001). Reocclusion (3% versus 10%, p = 0.06), reinfarction (0% versus 4%, p less than 0.05), and need for emergency bypass surgery (1% versus 6%, p = 0.05) tended to be less in the t-PA/SK group. Greater myocardial salvage was apparent in the t-PA/SK group as assessed by infarct zone function at day 7 (-1.9 SD/chord versus -2.3 SD/chord after t-PA alone, p less than 0.05). In-hospital mortality (6% versus 4%) and serious bleeding (12% versus 11%) were similar between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that a less expensive regimen of half-dose t-PA with SK yields superior 90-minute patency and left ventricular function and a trend toward reduced reocclusion compared with the conventional dose of t-PA.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association