Use of endovascular stents in congenital heart disease.
BACKGROUND Balloon expandable intravascular stents have been used to support vessel walls in coronary and peripheral arteries in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of these stents in the treatment of congenital heart disease.
METHODS AND RESULTS Forty-five stents were placed in 30 patients, who were 0.2-30.2 years old (weight, 3.5-76 kg). Patients with areas of stenosis that were difficult to approach surgically were chosen. Stents were mounted over balloons and placed by standard catheterization techniques. Twenty-three patients had branch pulmonary artery stenosis. Thirty-six stents were placed successfully and had reduced pressure gradients from 50.6 +/- 24 to 15.9 +/- 13.4 mm Hg. Five patients had stents placed after atrial surgery: three in obstructed Fontan repairs, one at the superior vena cava-right atrial junction after sinus venous defect repair, and one at the site of a Glenn shunt. Atrial stents reduced pressure gradients from 9.8 +/- 8.2 to 2.0 +/- 2.6 mm Hg. One patient had a stent placed in the descending aorta after coarctation dilation, and the pressure gradient was reduced from 50 to 25 mm Hg. One patient had pulmonary vein dilation with stent placement. Two stents migrated at the time of placement; one required surgical removal, and one was anchored in place by balloon dilation. One patient died within 24 hours of catheterization because of thrombus obstruction of the Fontan repair. Nine patients have undergone recatheterization. All stented vessels have remained at the same caliber as at original stent placement.
CONCLUSIONS We conclude that balloon expandable stents are useful in selected postoperative stenoses in congenital heart disease.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association