Interventricular coronary steal induced by stenosis of left anterior descending coronary artery in exercising pigs.
BACKGROUND In pigs and humans, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) supplies the left ventricular anterior wall (LVAW), anterior septum, and paraseptal band of the right ventricular anterior wall (RVAW). The purposes of our study were 1) to study the LAD flow distribution in these walls during preexercise, exercise, and exercise with LAD stenosis and 2) to analyze regional wall motion under these conditions.
METHODS AND RESULTS Nine pigs were instrumented with sonomicrometers for measuring percent wall thickening (%WTh) in LVAW, RVAW, and lateral (control) walls of both ventricles, a hydraulic occluder at the LAD origin, an LV pressure transducer, and catheters for radioactive microsphere injection (left atrium) and blood withdrawal (aorta). One month later, regional %WTh and flows were measured during preexercise, exercise, and continuing exercise with LAD stenosis resulting in more than 50% reduction in systolic LVAW %WTh with regard to exercise. LAD stenosis caused a dramatic decrease in total mean +/- SD LVAW subendocardial flow with regard to exercise (28.7 +/- 8 to 9.1 +/- 3.2 ml.min-1, p less than 0.0001) but not significant changes in either LVAW subepicardial flow or RVAW flow. The transmural distribution of flows within the LAD bed (as percentages of the total LAD flow in each experimental condition) showed that LAD stenosis redistributed flows with regard to exercise such that the LVAW subendocardial flow decreased from 26.4 +/- 4.2% of the total LAD flow to 11.8 +/- 4.3% (p less than 0.0001), whereas LVAW subepicardial flow increased from 32.9 +/- 2.3% of the total LAD flow to 45.5 +/- 7.9% (p less than 0.0001) and RVAW increased from 12 +/- 4.9% of the total LAD flow to 18.7 +/- 7.2% (p less than 0.0005). With exercise plus LAD stenosis, LVAW %WTh decreased from 43.2 +/- 8.4% to 17.2 +/- 9.7% (p less than 0.0001), but RVAW %WTh did not change.
CONCLUSIONS In the LAD bed of exercising pigs, LAD stenosis induces, in addition to transmural steal, an interventricular steal favoring the RVAW at the expense of the LVAW subendocardium. This steal results in preserved RVAW thickening despite severe LVAW hypokinesia.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association