Alterations in left ventricular diastolic twist mechanics during acute human cardiac allograft rejection.
BACKGROUND Contraction of obliquely oriented left ventricular (LV) fibers results in a twisting motion of the left ventricle. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of acute human cardiac allograft rejection on LV twist pattern and the twist-volume relation.
METHODS AND RESULTS Tantalum markers were implanted into the LV midwall in 15 transplant recipients to measure time-varying, three-dimensional chamber twist using computer-assisted analysis of biplane cinefluoroscopic images. Twist was defined as the mean longitudinal gradient of circumferential rotation about the LV long axis. When plotted against normalized percent ejection fraction (%EF), the resulting twist-normalized %EF relation could be divided into three phases. In systole, LV twist was linearly related to ejection of blood. In contrast, diastolic untwist was characterized by early rapid recoil with little change in LV volume, followed by more gradual untwisting when the bulk of diastolic filling occurred. During 10 acute rejection episodes in 10 patients, maximum twist, peak systolic twist rate, and the slope of the systolic twist-normalized %EF relation did not change. In contrast, the slope of the early (first 15% of filling) diastolic twist-normalized %EF relation (M(early-dia)) decreased significantly (-0.194 +/- 0.062 [prerejection] versus -0.103 +/- 0.054 rad/cm [rejection], p = 0.0003), resulting in a prolonged tau 1/2 (time required to untwist by 50% [20 +/- 5% versus 28 +/- 5% of diastole], p = 0.0003) and decrease in percent untwisting at 15% diastolic LV filling (62 +/- 11% versus 36 +/- 13%, p = 0.0003). Therefore, a greater proportion of LV untwisting occurred later in diastole during rejection, as reflected by an increase in the slope (M(mid-dia)) of the middle to late (from 15 to 90% filling) diastolic twist-normalized %EF relation (-0.018 +/- 0.009 versus -0.030 +/- 0.010 rad/cm, p = 0.0015). Peak rate of untwist was not affected. With resolution of rejection, M(early-dia) and percent untwist during early diastole returned to baseline levels (p = NS versus baseline). There was also a trend for M(mid-dia) to return toward prerejection values (p = NS versus baseline), but this change did not reach statistical significance compared with rejection values.
CONCLUSION Acute cardiac allograft rejection is associated with altered diastolic twist mechanics in the absence of any demonstratable systolic abnormalities. During rejection, myocardial edema and other factors may result in intrinsic changes of the elastic properties of the myocardium, thereby leading to modification of recoil forces responsible for the early, rapid unwinding of the deformed ventricle.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association