Acute coronary artery occlusion during and after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Frequency, prediction, clinical course, management, and follow-up.
BACKGROUND Acute coronary artery occlusion after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) continues to remain a serious complication despite significant improvement in operator performance and technological advancements. This retrospective study was performed to ascertain the frequency, predictive variables, management, and outcome of acute coronary artery occlusion.
METHODS AND RESULTS The study was based on data from 1,423 consecutive patients who underwent an elective coronary angioplasty between January 1986 and December 1988. Acute coronary artery occlusion occurred in 104 patients (7.3%). Acute occlusion developed during the dilatation procedure in 80 patients (5.6%) and within 24 hours after the procedure in 24 patients (1.7%). Four clinical and 14 angiographic variables predictive for acute coronary artery occlusion were analyzed in these 104 patients with a complicated procedure and were compared with those in 104 representative patients with successful attempts. Multivariate analysis found three independent predictive variables: unstable angina, multivessel disease, and complex lesions. The overall clinical outcome after management of acute coronary artery occlusion including immediate repeat dilatation (95 patients), use of intracoronary streptokinase (34 patients), or autoperfusion catheter (12 patients) was successful (reduction of lumen diameter to less than 50%, no death, no myocardial infarction [MI], and no emergency surgery) in 42 patients (40%), was a failure without major complication in four patients (4%), and was a failure with major complication (death, MI, and emergency surgery) in 58 patients (56%). The overall mortality rate was 6% (six patients), the overall MI rate was 36% (37 patients), and emergency bypass surgery was required in 30% of patients (31 patients). At 6 months' follow-up of 42 patients with successful management, recurrent angina pectoris due to restenosis occurred in 10 patients (24%), and a late MI occurred in one patient (3%). At 6 months' follow-up of 56 survivors with unsuccessful management (development of MI or need for emergency bypass surgery), recurrent angina occurred in nine patients (16%), and cardiac death in two patients (4%). However, the majority of patients in both groups were either symptom free or had mild angina pectoris.
CONCLUSION Acute coronary artery occlusion during PTCA is often unpredictable, but its frequency is higher in patients with unstable angina, multivessel disease, and complex lesions. Despite immediate redilatation, use of intracoronary streptokinase, and emergency bypass surgery, PTCA is associated with a high mortality and morbidity.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association