Electrocardiographic body surface potential mapping in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Noninvasive determination of the ventricular insertion sites of accessory atrioventricular connections.
BACKGROUND A reliable, noninvasive procedure to determine the location of accessory atrioventricular connections in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome would add an important diagnostic tool to the clinical armamentarium.
METHODS AND RESULTS Body surface potential mapping (BSPM) using 180 electrodes in various-sized vests and displayed as a calibrated color map was used to determine the ventricular insertion site of the accessory atrioventricular (AV) connections in 34 patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Attempts were made to determine the 17 ventricular insertion sites described by Guiraudon et al. All 34 patients had an electrophysiologic study (EPS) at cardiac catheterization, and 18 had surgery so the ventricular insertion sites could be accurately located using EPS at surgery. A number of physiologic observations were also made with BSPM.
CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions were drawn: 1) BSPM using QRS analysis accurately predicts the ventricular insertion site of accessory AV connections in the presence of a delta wave in the electrocardiogram; 2) the ventricular insertion sites of accessory AV connections determined by BSPM and by EPS at surgery were identical or within one mapping site (1.5 cm or less) in all but four of 18 cases; three of the four exceptions had more than one accessory AV connection, and the other had a very broad ventricular insertion; 3) BSPM and EPS locations of the accessory AV connections correlated very well in the 34 cases despite the fact that BSPM determines the ventricular insertion site and EPS determines the atrial insertion site of the accessory AV connection; 4) as suggested by the three cases of multiple accessory AV connections, EPS and BSPM may be complementary since BSPM identified one pathway and EPS identified the other (in the case with a broad ventricular insertion, BSPM and EPS demonstrated different proportions of that insertion); 5) BSPM using ST-T analysis is very much less accurate in predicting the ventricular insertion site of accessory AV connections unless there is marked preexcitation; 6) standard electrocardiography using the Gallagher grid methodology (but with no attempt at stimulating maximal preexcitation) was not as accurate as QRS analysis of BSPM in predicting the ventricular insertion site of the accessory AV connection; however, exact comparison is hampered by the different number and size of the Gallagher and Guiraudon insertion sites; 7) BSPM using QRS analysis appears to be very accurate in predicting right ventricular versus left ventricular posteroseptal accessory AV connections; 8) typical epicardial right ventricular breakthrough, indicative of conduction via the specialized AV conduction system, occurs in all patients with left ventricular free wall accessory AV connections; 9) epicardial right ventricular breakthrough was not observed in cases with right ventricular free wall or anteroseptal accessory AV connections; 10) epicardial right ventricular breakthrough can occur in the presence of posteroseptal accessory AV connections, whether right or left ventricular; and 11) the delay in epicardial right ventricular breakthrough in cases with left ventricular insertion may provide a marker to estimate the degree of ventricular preexcitation.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association