Concept of maximal flow ratio for immediate evaluation of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty result by videodensitometry.
BACKGROUND In the setting of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), immediate information about the result of the intervention is important, whereas morphological parameters are often less reliable than in diagnostic coronary arteriography. Recently, a new videodensitometric method was introduced and validated in animal experiments, which allows accurate comparison of maximal myocardial perfusion between situations with different degrees of stenosis. This method uses mean transit time (Tmn) of the contrast agent at maximal hyperemia as a parameter for maximal flow and is strictly in accordance with indicated dilation theory.
METHODS AND RESULTS In 40 patients with angina pectoris, single-vessel disease, and a positive exercise test at the time of acceptance for PTCA, this approach was applied for evaluation of the improvement of maximal flow achieved by the PTCA. Maximal vasodilation was induced immediately before and 15 minutes after PTCA by intracoronary administration of papaverine, and digital angiographic studies were performed. By special breath-holding instruction, almost motionless, triggered image acquisition was possible during 15-20 heartbeats. Excellent subtraction images could be obtained, and reliable determination of Tmn at maximal hyperemia was possible in 33 patients both before and after PTCA. The ratio between maximal flow after and before PTCA, called maximal flow ratio (MFR), was represented by the ratio between Tmn before and after the intervention and compared with the results of exercise testing 24-48 hours before and 7-10 days after the procedure. After correction for pressure changes, MFR was 2.2 +/- 1.5 for the 33 dilated vessels and 1.0 +/- 0.2 for 25 normal vessels serving as a control. In 94% of all patients, an MFR value of more than 1.6 or less than 1.6 discriminated between presence or absence of reversal of exercise test result from positive to negative. If on-line judgment of success was based upon angiographic parameters or measurement of trans-stenotic pressure gradient, the relation with noninvasive functional improvement was present only in 66% and 74% of all patients, respectively. A definite range of what can be called normal Tmn at maximal hyperemia could be distinguished, and post-PTCA values for successfully dilated arteries returned completely to this normal range.
CONCLUSIONS Accurate comparison of maximal myocardial perfusion before and after PTCA is possible in man, improvement of maximal flow is highly related to functional improvement as indicated by exercise test results, and, therefore, this method provides a straightforward way for on-line evaluation of the result of the intervention.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association