Rate dependence of sotalol-induced prolongation of ventricular repolarization during exercise in humans.
Studies in animals have shown that drug-induced action potential prolongation with class III antiarrhythmic agents increases with slow pacing rates. We studied the physiological rate dependence of sotalol effects on ventricular repolarization, measured as QT interval duration on the surface electrocardiogram at rest and during a maximal exercise test, in 10 normal volunteers. In a randomized, crossover study, three dosages of sotalol (160 mg/24 hr, 320 mg/24 hr, and 640 mg/24 hr) were administered during 4 days to each subject. In a control period, no drug was administered. During each period, 50-100 QT intervals were measured over a wide range of RR intervals recorded at rest and during the course of a maximal exercise test. Plasma sotalol concentration and beta-adrenoceptor blockade (percent reduction in peak exercise heart rate from control) were also measured. The QT-versus-RR relation was fitted to several formulas, and the overall best fit was used to calculate QT interval duration normalized for a heart rate of 60 beats/min (QTc) and to analyze the rate dependence of QT prolongation with sotalol. Sotalol-induced beta-adrenoceptor blockade and QTc prolongation were dose and concentration dependent. Sotalol reduced peak exercise heart rate by 13.8 +/- 7% at the dosage of 320 mg/24 hr and by 25.4 +/- 8% at the dosage of 640 mg/24 hr (both p less than 0.01). Sotalol prolonged QTc interval by 5.8 +/- 3.7% and 11.8 +/- 3% at these respective dosages (both p less than 0.01). The concentration of sotalol required to produce minimal (mean QTc prolongation, 5.6%; confidence interval, 0-11.2%) QTc prolongation (680 ng/ml) tended to be lower than that required for minimal (mean percent reduction in maximal exercise heart rate, 13.9%; confidence interval, 0-27.8%) beta-blockade (840 ng/ml). QT prolongation with sotalol increased with increasing RR intervals (i.e., decreasing heart rate) at all dosages. QT prolongation became statistically significant for RR of 800 msec or more at all dosages and for RR intervals of 600 msec or more at the dosage of 640 mg/24 hr. This rate dependence altered the relation between QT interval duration and sotalol plasma concentrations. These results suggest that sotalol prolongs QTc interval in humans at dosages and concentrations similar to those required to produce beta-adrenoceptor blockade, QT prolongation with sotalol is more pronounced when heart rate decreases and is not apparent during exercise-induced tachycardia, and the relation between QT prolongation with sotalol and plasma concentrations of the drug depends on the heart rate at which measurements are made.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association