Iliofemoral arterial complications of balloon angioplasty for systemic obstructions in infants and children.
The medical and radiological records of 64 consecutive infants and children who underwent transfemoral balloon dilation of the aorta or aortic valve were reviewed to determine the incidence, nature, and post-treatment outcome of acute iliofemoral complications. Balloon dilation angioplasty or balloon valvotomy was performed with 8F and 9F catheters without an arterial sheath. Patients ranged in age from 5 days to 15.4 years (mean, 6.4 years). Of 64 patients, 29 (45.3%) had an acute iliofemoral complication, including thrombosis (18 of 64), complete disruption (five of 64), incomplete disruption (three of 64), and arterial tear (three of 64). The arterial pathology was confirmed in 23 of 29 patients by one or a combination of surgical exploration and repair (18 of 29), angiography (six of 29), and magnetic resonance imaging (three of 29). Of eight patients, three with arterial disruption had acute hypotension requiring transfusion and immediate surgery; the other five had absent pedal pulses after the procedure. Of these five, three developed bleeding during thrombolytic therapy and underwent surgical exploration, and two were diagnosed by angiography after ineffective thrombolytic therapy. Angiography in three patients with iliac artery avulsion showed tapered occlusion in two and an aneurysm in one. In patients with iliofemoral thrombosis, angiography showed occlusion from the puncture site to the origin of the external iliac artery. Eleven patients (17% of the entire group and 38% of the group with acute iliofemoral complications) had reduced or absent pedal pulses at the time of discharge. A significant correlation was found between increased incidence of iliofemoral thrombosis and disruption (as well as abnormal pedal pulses at hospital discharge) and low patient weight.
- Copyright © 1990 by American Heart Association