Determinants of cardiac involvement in children and adolescents with essential hypertension.
Left ventricular hypertrophy is often found in association with systemic hypertension and may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Few studies have investigated the determinants of left ventricular mass (LVM) in young patients with essential hypertension. Therefore, we studied 104 children and adolescents with blood pressure persistently greater than the 90th percentile for age and sex and with no known cause of blood pressure elevation. LVM was determined by echocardiography and was indexed by height to account for body size. The mean LVM index was 90.2 +/- 26.0 g/m. Using the gender-specific 95th percentile from normal children, 40 subjects (38.5%) had left ventricular hypertrophy. Using multiple regression analysis, the significant independent direct correlates of LVM index were male sex, body mass index, dietary sodium intake, age at diagnosis, and systolic blood pressure at maximum exercise. The significant independent inverse correlate of LVM index was resting heart rate (p less than 0.05). These variables accounted for a substantial portion of the LVM index variance in this population (multiple R2 = 0.56, p less than 0.001). The results indicate that left ventricular hypertrophy is prevalent in children and adolescents with essential hypertension. The direct association of LVM index with body mass index and dietary sodium intake suggests weight reduction and dietary salt restriction might be useful to prevent or treat the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in pediatric patients with essential hypertension.
- Copyright © 1990 by American Heart Association