Failed elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty requiring coronary artery bypass surgery. In-hospital and late clinical outcome at 5 years.
This study was performed to define the in-hospital and late clinical outcome at 5 years in 430 patients who had a failed elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery during their hospitalization. This group comprised 5.9% of 7,246 patients undergoing elective PTCA. CABG surgery was performed in 346 patients with ongoing myocardial ischemia (80.5%) and in 84 patients without ischemia (19.5%). Their mean age was 56 +/- 9 years, and 76.3% were male. One-vessel disease was present in 72.3%, and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 59 +/- 11%. Overall, 1.9 +/- 0.9 bypass grafts were placed. There was increased use of the internal thoracic artery in the nonischemic group. A new nonfatal postprocedural Q wave myocardial infarction occurred in 21.2% and occurred more frequently in the ischemic (25.4%) than in the nonischemic (3.6%) group (p less than 0.0001). There were six in-hospital deaths (1.4%), an incidence that did not differ between the two groups. Follow-up was 99.8% complete. There were 25 deaths (93.2 +/- 1.5%, 5-year survival), including 16 of cardiac cause (95.3 +/- 1.3%, 5-year cardiac survival). Q wave myocardial infarction occurred in 111 patients (91 in-hospital), and freedom from cardiac death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 5 years was 71 +/- 3%. In the group going to CABG surgery with ongoing ischemia, the 5-year cardiac survival was 94.9 +/- 1.6%, and in the group without ischemia, the corresponding survival was 96.2 +/- 2.2%. By multivariate analysis, the presence of preoperative myocardial ischemia, pre-PTCA diameter stenosis less than 90%, and the presence of multiple-vessel disease correlated with the occurrence of cardiac death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 5 years. At this large-volume center with extensive PTCA operator and surgical experience, the excellent survival and low event rates over 5 years support the concept that despite the failed elective PTCA procedure, there was little effect on long-term survival provided the patient underwent prompt successful surgical revascularization.
- Copyright © 1990 by American Heart Association