Physiological and immunopathological consequences of active immunization of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats against murine renin.
Spontaneously hypertensive Okamoto-strain rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were actively immunized with mouse renin to investigate the effect on blood pressure of blocking the renin-angiotensinogen reaction. Ten male SHR and 10 male WKY rats were immunized with purified mouse submandibular gland renin. Control rats were immunized with bovine serum albumin. Antirenin antibodies were produced by both SHR and WKY rats, but renin-immunized SHR had higher titers of circulating renin antibodies after three injections. The increase in renin antibody in renin-immunized SHR was associated with a significant drop in blood pressure (tail-cuff method) that became similar to that of the WKY control rats after four injections. The blockade by antirenin immunoglobulins of the renin-angiotensinogen reaction also decreased the blood pressure of normotensive rats. Perfusion of renin-immunized rats with mouse submandibular renin (10 micrograms) in vivo caused no increase in blood pressure. Perfusion of renin-immunized, salt-depleted SHR with converting enzyme inhibitor caused no further decrease in blood pressure but significantly decreased blood pressure in salt-depleted control rats. The presence of circulating renin antibodies was associated with low plasma renin activity (0.31 +/- 0.23 ng angiotensin I [Ang I]/ml/hr). Plasma renin activity was unchanged in control animals (13.1 +/- 3.9 ng Ang I/ml/hr in control SHR, 13.9 +/- 3.2 ng Ang I/ml/hr in control WKY rats). Renin antibody-rich serum produced a dose-dependent inhibition of rat renin enzymatic activity in vitro. The chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensinogen reaction in renin-immunized SHR produced an almost-complete disappearance of Ang II (0.8 %/- 7 fmol/ml; control SHR, 30.6 +/- 15.7 fmol/ml) and a 50% reduction in urinary aldosterone. Renin immunization was never associated with a detectable loss of sodium after either 10 or 24 weeks. The glomerular filtration rate was not decreased 10 weeks after renin immunization, whereas blood pressure was significantly decreased, plasma renin activity was blocked, and renal plasma flow was increased. The ratio of left ventricular weight to body weight after 24 weeks was significantly below control levels in renin-immunized WKY rats and SHR. Histological examination of the kidney of renin-immunized SHR showed a chronic autoimmune interstitial nephritis characterized by the presence of immunoglobulins, mononuclear cell infiltration, and fibrosis around the juxtaglomerular apparatus. These experiments demonstrate that chronic specific blockade of renin decreases blood pressure in a genetic model of hypertension in which the renin-angiotensin system is not directly involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1990 by American Heart Association