Antibodies to ADP-ATP carrier--an autoantigen in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy--impair cardiac function.
The adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) carrier of the inner mitochondrial membrane is identified as an autoantigen in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Sera of patients with these diseases contain autoantibodies to the ADP-ATP carrier capable of inhibiting nucleotide transport in vitro. Recently, an antibody-related infringement of energy metabolism was shown in intact perfused hearts isolated from guinea pigs immunized with the ADP-ATP carrier. A decreased cytosolic-mitochondrial difference of the phosphorylation potential of ATP was measured that originated from a reduction in mitochondrial-cytosolic nucleotide transport. Nonimmunized animals did not show these changes in energy metabolism, despite being in a comparable metabolic state and performing equal external heart work. To establish whether antibodies to the ADP-ATP carrier can also alter cardiac function, hemodynamic parameters of isolated hearts of guinea pigs that were preimmunized with the carrier protein were measured. Cardiac metabolism was stimulated by exposing the hearts to a high calcium concentration in conjunction with a maximum elevation of the afterload. Mean aortic pressure, stroke volume, stroke work, and external heart work were found to be lowered significantly (p less than 0.005). The external heart work of the immunized hearts reached only about 20% of the level performed by control hearts. Myocardial oxygen consumption was lowered 2.5-fold, whereas the extent of lactate production was found to be more than doubled. These results show a diminished cardiac performance of hearts from animals immunized with the ADP-ATP carrier. Our findings demonstrate that autoimmunity to the ADP-ATP carrier may contribute to the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy as a subsequent stage of myocarditis by causing an autoantibody-mediated reduction in cardiac function on the basis of an imbalance between energy delivery and demand.
- Copyright © 1990 by American Heart Association