Results of the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect. Surgical considerations and midterm follow-up data.
Between January 1983 and December 1987, 62 patients underwent an arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect or double outlet right or left ventricle. There were three hospital deaths (4.8%), and no deaths occurred in neonates (less than 1 month of age, n = 18). There were three late deaths, one due to coronary obstruction and two due to pulmonary vascular obstructive disease. One child has been lost to follow-up. We have prospectively evaluated the remaining 55 survivors by clinical evaluation, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, and limited electrophysiologic studies. The mean length of follow-up has been 27 +/- 16 months since surgery. One child has required reoperation for a residual ventricular septal defect; no child has undergone reoperation for supravalvar pulmonary or aortic stenosis. Aortic regurgitation was identified in 12 children (22%), which was mild in 11 and moderate in one. One child has asymptomatic occlusion of the left main coronary artery, one child has a tiny right coronary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula, and one child has abnormal left ventricular wall motion according to follow-up angiography. No other abnormalities of systemic (left) ventricular function have been identified at late follow-up. In addition to the two late deaths due to pulmonary vascular obstructive disease, three children, all of whom were repaired at more than 6 months of age, have elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Notable postoperative arrhythmias include complete heart block in four patients and nonsustained supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia early after surgery in eight patients (all resolved without medication at later follow-up). Only two patients have evidence of sinus node dysfunction and have not required treatment. The low hospital mortality and encouraging early follow-up data represent a significant improvement over atrial level repairs, supporting the arterial switch operation as the procedure of choice for children who have transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect or double outlet ventricle. Because of the potential for the development of early pulmonary vascular obstructive disease in these patients, repair is recommended within the first 2 months of life.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association