Measurement of end-systolic pressure-volume relations by intra-aortic balloon occlusion.
A new situ technique has been developed for measuring peak end-systolic elastance, Emax, that does not alter intrinsic or reflex-stimulated cardiac contractility. Afterload is varied by the inflation of an intra-aortic balloon catheter positioned in the ascending aorta. Balloon inflation is timed to interrupt ventricular ejection transiently at different times during the ejection phase, therefore, producing contraction at different ventricular volumes. Simultaneous measurement of left ventricular pressure and aortic flow during the occlusion sequence allows pressure versus ejected volume loops to be generated, from which the end-systolic pressure-volume relation is determined. End-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR) was measured in six anesthetized Dorsett sheep with normal and enhanced contractile states. ESPVR was analyzed using both linear and nonlinear techniques. Although nonlinear components were seen in ESPVR, for the pressure-volume data range produced by the transient occlusions, linear approximations of ESPVR fit the end-systolic data points well. In the normal state, Emax, the slope of the linear ESPVR, was 1.01-5.08 mm Hg/ml in animals with body weights of 23-32 kg. After epinephrine infusion, Emax increased from 3.07 +/- 1.49 to 5.79 +/- 1.97 mm Hg/ml, which is consistent with previous investigations. Linear and nonlinear volume intercepts had a small increase with positive inotropic stimulation. Furthermore, serial measurements of Emax tracked cardiac function in depressed hearts with rapidly changing contractility.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association