Simultaneous aortic, jugular bulb, and right atrial pressures during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans. Insights into mechanisms.
Pressure gradients across and between the head and chest were studied during mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in 22 humans. Patients in medical cardiac arrest, managed by ACLS guidelines, underwent placement of aortic arch (Ao), jugular venous bulb (JVB), and right atrial (RA) catheters. Simultaneous pressures were measured, and intercatheter gradients were calculated. The JVB to RA pressure difference is the gradient between the cervical and central venous circulations. It was negative when averaged throughout the CPR cycle and was more negative during compression than relaxation, -19 +/- 12 and -2 +/- 6 mm Hg, respectively. This indicates that the intrathoracic pressure rise was not transmitted to the jugular venous system, supporting the concept of a competent jugular valve mechanism during CPR. It is consistent with the thoracic pump model of cerebral perfusion. JVB to RA was positive only during early relaxation, allowing blood return from the head. The Ao to JVB gradient, although not equal to cerebral perfusion pressure, is the maximum potential pressure gradient for blood flow across the cerebral vasculature. It was positive throughout CPR, 25 +/- 17 during compression, and 9 +/- 10 mm Hg during relaxation. The Ao to RA gradient during the relaxation phase is CPR coronary perfusion pressure. In most patients, it was minimally positive in both phases of the CPR cycle: 7 +/- 14 in compression and 7 +/- 9 mm Hg during relaxation. This appears to be inadequate in providing sufficient blood flow to meet the metabolic needs of the myocardium. Four patients had larger gradients during compression suggestive of cardiac compression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association