Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty in patients with severe aortic stenosis and low ejection fraction. Immediate results and 1-year follow-up.
The efficacy, morbidity, and 1-year follow-up of balloon aortic valvuloplasty in patients with low ejection fraction (less than 40%) were studied on a consecutive series of 55 patients (mean age, 77 years) treated from September 1985 to February 1987. Because of their age (20 patients greater than 80 years old), poor left ventricular function, and associated diseases, 45 patients were definitely not surgical candidates. Balloon dilatation with 15-23-mm diameter balloon catheters decreased the transvalvular gradient from 66 +/- 24 to 28 +/- 14 mm Hg (p less than 0.001) and increased the valve area from 0.47 +/- 0.15 to 0.83 +/- 0.27 cm2 (p less than 0.001). Immediately after dilatation, ejection fraction mildly increased from 29 +/- 7% to 34 +/- 9% (p less than 0.001) in 38 patients who had undergone a second left ventricular angiogram after dilatation. No significant change in the degree of aortic regurgitation was found after the procedure. Three patients died in hospital (femoral arterial complications in two, septicemia in one). Immediate clinical improvement was noted in 80% of the patients. During the follow-up (mean, 11 months), 22 patients died (heart failure in 15 patients, sudden death in five patients, myocardial infarction in one patient, cancer in one patient). Thirty patients survived, 21 with persistent clinical improvement. Repeat cardiac catheterization was performed at 6 months in 20 patients, of whom eight had recurrence of symptoms. Nine patients had restenosis: their hemodynamic indexes had returned to prevalvuloplasty values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association