Evaluation of antiarrhythmic drugs on defibrillation energy requirements in dogs. Sodium channel block and action potential prolongation.
Antiarrhythmic drugs have been reported to produce variable effects on defibrillation energy requirements. However, the relation between the in vitro electrophysiologic effects of these agents and the changes in defibrillation energy requirements have not been systematically examined. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of the sodium channel blocking drugs lidocaine and procainamide, the action potential prolonging drugs N-acetyl procainamide and clofilium, and the potassium current blocker cesium in acute canine models with the same internal spring and epicardial patch electrodes used in humans for ventricular defibrillation testing. Ten series of experiments were performed in 78 dogs. Nonlinear regression was used to derive curves of energy dose versus percent successful defibrillation attempts and the 50% and 90% effective energy dose for each experimental condition. Saline control experiments indicated that the preparation was stable throughout the 6-hour duration of the experiments. Lidocaine doubled the defibrillation energy requirement (p less than 0.001) at a mean plasma concentration of 8.2 micrograms/ml. The effect of lidocaine on defibrillation energy was reversible, present at therapeutic plasma concentrations, linearly related to plasma concentration (r = 0.69, p less than 0.002), and present even after only 5-second episodes of ventricular fibrillation. In contrast, procainamide had no effect on defibrillation energy at mean plasma concentrations of 8.5 and 13 micrograms/ml, even after prolonged (30-second) episodes of ventricular fibrillation, whereas N-acetyl procainamide, clofilium, and cesium all decreased the energy requirement for defibrillation by 13-27%. Moreover, with the addition of N-acetyl procainamide, there was a trend toward diminishing the increase in defibrillation energy requirement caused by lidocaine. All agents prolonged the mean ventricular fibrillation cycle length. Lidocaine shortened the QT interval, whereas all other agents increased the QT (p less than 0.05). The major electrophysiologic effect of lidocaine is of sodium channel blockade, whereas, N-acetyl procainamide, clofilium, and cesium predominantly increase the action potential duration, and procainamide exerts both effects. Thus, these data indicate that sodium channel block and action potential prolongation exert significant and antagonistic modulating effects on defibrillation energy requirements.
- Copyright © 1989 by American Heart Association